Invention Of Modern Science
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Wootton mentions in passing that improvements in, for example, glass-blowing were a precondition for early experiments on air pressure, and he is alert to how double-entry bookkeeping may have provided a template for other sorts of mathematical abstraction. Yet he underplays how practices such as keeping a commonplace book and achieving high temperatures in a furnace were creatively adapted to new purposes. These connections provide the strongest evidence both for the continuity of new knowledge with old, and for its exuberant originality in hybridising scholarly and practical skills.
Anyone who argues for a sharp and momentous historical discontinuity must come up with causes.
The Royal Society and the Invention of Modern Science
Why then? Why there? Wootton is committed to making the scientific revolution both discontinuous with all that came before and continuous with all that followed. The extravagant fertility of science suggests otherwise. Since it has produced not only new discoveries and theories, but also new ways of knowing. Science was not invented once, but over and over again: the model not only of progress, but work in progress. E-commerce Frank Pantridge develops the portable defibrillator for treating cardiac arrest patients.
The Invention of Science
Defibrillators Stephanie Kwolek patents a super-strong plastic called Kevlar. Kevlar Robert H. Vacuum fluorescent displays Alfred Y. Cho and John R. Arthur, Jr invent a precise way of making single crystals called molecular beam epitaxy MBE.
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Molecular beam epitaxy World's first solar power station opened in France. Solar cells Energy Long before computers become portable, Alan Kay imagines building an electronic book, which he nicknames the Dynabook. Electronic books Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith invent the CCD charge-coupled device : the light-sensitive chip used in digital cameras, webcams, and other modern optical equipment. Space rockets s Douglas Engelbart develops the computer mouse. Computer mouse s James Russell invents compact discs. Electronic ink and paper Ted Hoff builds the first single-chip computer or microprocessor.
History of computers Martin Cooper develops the first handheld cellphone mobile phone. Cellphones Robert Metcalfe figures out a simple way of linking computers together that he names Ethernet. Most computers hooked up to the Internet now use it. Computer networks Internet First grocery-store purchase of an item coded with a barcode. Barcodes and barcode scanners Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman invent public-key cryptography.
Encryption Pico Electronics develops X home automation system.
Smart homes Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs launch the Apple I: one of the world's first personal home computers History of computers s— s James Dyson invents the bagless, cyclonic vacuum cleaner. Quantum computers s Japanese electrical pioneer Akio Morita develops the Sony Walkman, the first truly portable player for recorded music. History of computers The Space Shuttle makes its maiden voyage. Space Shuttle Patricia Bath develops laser eye surgery for removing cataracts.
Lasers Fujio Masuoka files a patent for flash memory—a type of reusable computer memory that can store information even when the power is off. Flash memory — Alexei Ekimov and Louis E. Brus independently discover quantum dots. Quantum dots Compact discs CDs are launched as a new way to store music by the Sony and Philips corporations. Radio-controlled clocks Quartz clocks and watches Linus Torvalds creates the first version of Linux, a collaboratively written computer operating system. Computers Linux American-born mathematician John Daugman perfects the mathematics that make iris scanning systems possible.
VoIP Broadcast. Streaming media Pierre Omidyar launches the eBay auction website. Wireless Internet 21st century Apple revolutionizes music listening by unveiling its iPod MP3 music player. Electronic books Bram Cohen develops BitTorrent file-sharing. Touchscreens Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov discover graphene.
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Electronic books Apple introduces a touchscreen cellphone called the iPhone. Cellphones Touchscreens Apple releases its touchscreen tablet computer, the iPad. Computers Touchscreens 3D TV starts to become more widely available. Pneumatics Pneumatic transport tube Supercomputers the world's fastest computers are now a mere 30 times less powerful than human brains. Supercomputers Three nanotechnologists win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for building miniature machines out of molecules.
Nanotechnology Quantum computing shows signs of becoming a practical technology. Quantum computers. Sponsored links. Follow us. Rate this page Please rate or give feedback on this page and I will make a donation to WaterAid. More to explore on our website Tools and machines Wheels and axles. First written languages are developed by the Sumerian people of southern Mesopotamia part of modern Iraq.
Water-raising and irrigation devices like the shaduf shadoof , invented by the Ancient Egyptians, introduce the idea of lifting things using counterweights. Iron Age begins: iron is widely used for making tools and weapons in many parts of the world. Bullets Fireworks Space rockets. Clockwork Cams and cranks Robots. Arabic engineer al-Jazari invents a flushing hand-washing machine, one of the ancestors of the modern toilet. Johannes Gutenberg pioneers the modern printing press, using rearrangeable metal letters called movable type.
Microscopes Electron microscopes. William Gilbert publishes his great book De Magnete describing how Earth behaves like a giant magnet. Galileo's pupil Evangelista Torricelli builds the first mercury barometer for measuring air pressure. Christiaan Huygens develops the pendulum clock using Galileo's earlier discovery that a swinging pendulum can be used to keep time.
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English farmer Jethro Tull begins the mechanization of agriculture by inventing the horse-drawn seed drill. How computers work History of computers. John Campbell invents the sextant, an improved navigational device that enables sailors to measure latitude.
John Harrison develops reliable chronometers seafaring clocks that allow sailors to measure longitude accurately for the first time.
Quartz clocks and watches Satellite navigation. Wolfgang von Kempelen develops a mechanical speaking machine: the world's first speech synthesizer.
The Invention of Modern Science — University of Minnesota Press
Reverend William Gregor, a British clergyman and amateur geologist, discovers a mysterious mineral that he calls menachite. Joseph-Marie Jacquard invents the automated cloth-weaving loom. Humphry Davy develops electrolysis into an important chemical technique and uses it to identify a number of new elements. Electricity generators Electric motors Hub motors. Photography Digital cameras. Electric motors Hub motors. Louis Daguerre invents a practical method of taking pin-sharp photographs called Daguerreotypes.
Digital cameras Photography. William Henry Fox Talbot develops a way of making and printing photographs using reverse images called negatives. Charles Wheatstone and William Cooke, in England, and Samuel Morse, in the United States, develop the electric telegraph a forerunner of the telephone. Charles Goodyear finally perfects a durable form of rubber vulcanized rubber after many years of unsuccessful experimenting.